Several causes of postmenopausal bleeding may be:
- Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina. This includes uterine sarcoma and endometrial cancer.
- Vaginal or endometrial atrophy, which is when the uterus tissue lining becomes thin.
- Uterine polyps or fibroids.
- Endometritis (uterine lining infection).
- Medication involving hormone therapy or tamoxifen.
- Pelvic trauma.
- Urinary tract or rectum bleeding.
- Endometrial hyperplasia, excess growth of uterus lining cells.
Postmenopausal bleeding is investigated with:
- Blood test
- Pap smear
- Endometrial or cervical biopsy
- Hormonal treatment
- Surgical treatment: hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy/polypectomy.