Cervical biopsy can be carried out in different ways. The biopsy can just collect tissue or in some cases completely remove all abnormal tissue. It is most commonly used to test for precancerous and cancerous cells.
Sometimes the biopsy can treat cells that may turn into cancer. A cervical biopsy is often recommended after receiving an abnormal or positive result in a pap smear, or after receiving a positive result for human papillomavirus (HPV).
A cervical biopsy can be used to diagnose:
- Precancerous or cancerous cells in the cervix.
- Non-cancerous growths (polyps) on the cervix.
- Genital Warts: These are an indicator for HPV, which is a risk factor for cervical cancer.
- Diethylstillbestol (DES) exposure: If your mother took DES during pregnancy. DES raises the risk for cancer of the reproductive system.
There are several types of cervical biopsies including:
In this procedure a circular blade is used in order to remove the tissue. One or more punch biopsies may be done on different areas of the cervix.
In this case laser or scalpel is used to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from cervix.
In this case due to lack of vision on the endocervical canal, a narrow instrument called curette is used to scrap the lining of the endocervical canal.
There are several risks associated with cervical biopsy such as bleeding and infection. Also cone biopsy may increase the risk of infertility and miscarriage.
The accuracy of the test can be damaged can be affected by:
- Acute pelvic inflammatory disease
- Acute inflammation of the cervix